Virtual surgery, in general is a Virtual Reality Technique of simulating surgery procedure, which help Surgeons improve surgery plans and practice surgery process on 3D models. The simulator surgery results can be evaluated before the surgery is carried out on real patient. Thus helping the surgeon to have clear picture of the outcome of surgery. If the surgeon finds some errors, he can correct by repeating the surgical procedure as many number of times and finalising the parameters for good surgical results. The surgeon can view the anatomy from wide range of angles. This process, which cannot be done on a real patient in the surgery, helps the surgeon correct the incision, cutting, gain experience and therefore improve the surgical skills.
The virtual surgery is based on the patient specific model, so when the real surgery takes place, the surgeon is already familiar with all the specific operations that are to be employed.
3D Image Simulation
The first step in this is to generate a 3D model of the part of the body that undergo surgery Simulating human tissues-beit tooth enamel, skin or blood vessels-often starts with a sample from a flesh and blood person that is we should have a 3D model of the part of the body. Using computer graphics we first construct a reference model. Depending on this simulation needed, anatomical images can be derived from a series of patient's Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) or video recording, which are 2D images. These images are segmented using various segmentation methods like SNAKE'. The final model is obtained by deforming the reference model with constraints imposed by segmentation results. The image is digitally mapped on to the polygonal mesh representing whatever part of the body on organ is being examined. Each vortex of the polygon is assigned attributes like colour and reflectivity from the reference model.
For the user to interact with the graphics there must be software algorithms that can calculate the whereabouts of the virtual instrument and determines whether it has collide with a body part or anything else. The other thing is, we should have algorithms to solve how it looks or behave when the body part is cut. We need models of how various tissues behave when cut, prodded, punctured and so on. Here VR designers often portray the tissue as polygonal meshes that react like an array of masses connected by springs and dampers. The parameters of this model can then be tweaked to match what a physician experiences during an actual procedure. To create graphic that move without flickering collision detection and tissue deformation must be calculated at least 30 times/sec.
Advances in medical graphic allows ordinary medical scan of a patient anatomy be enhanced into virtual 3D views-a clear advantage for surgeon who preparing to do complicated procedures. Scans from MRJ and CT produces a series of things slices of the anatomy divided into volume data point or voxels, these slices are restacked and turned into 3D images by a computer. These 3D images are color enhanced to highlight, say bone or blood vessels.
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