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Bio Chips

In this page, you can find Bio Chips Seminar Topics for Biomedical Engineering Abstracts, Free Reports, PPT, Presentation, Documentation, PDF and DOC downloads  

Definition

A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (micro arrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed. Typically, a biochip's surface area is not longer than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds.

A genetic biochip is designed to “freeze” into place the structures of many short strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the basic chemical instruction that determines the characteristics of an organism. Effectively, it is used as a kind of “test tube” for real chemical samples.

The biochip implants system consists of two components: a transponder and a reader or scanner. The transponder is the actual biochip implant. The biochip system is radio frequency identification ( RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. The reading range or activation range, between reader and biochip is small, normally between 2 and 12 inches.

The Transponder

The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder, meaning it contains no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being passive, it is inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge. The reader reads or scans the implanted biochip and receives back data (in this case an identification number) from the biochips. The communication between biochip and reader is via low-frequency radio waves. Since the communication is via very low frequency radio waves it is nit at all harmful to the human body.

The biochip-transponder consists of four parts; computer microchip, antenna coil, capacitor and the glass capsule.

Computer microchips

The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. AVID (American Veterinary Identification Devices), claims their chips, using a nnn-nnn-nnn format, has the capability of over 70 trillion unique numbers. The unique ID number is “etched” or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. The microchip also contains the electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the ID number to the “reader”.

 


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